PublicationsNeotropical Parrot-Related Publications

Abramson, J., B. L.Spear, and J. B. Thomsen. 1995. The Large Macaws: Their Care, Breeding and Conservation. Raintree Publications, Ft. Bragg, CA.

Arrowood, P. C. 1981. Importation and status of Canary-winged Parakeets (Brotogeris versicolurus) in California. in R. F. Pasquier, editor. Conservation of New World Parrots. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C.

Arroyo, R., A. Arce, F. Dear, and C. Vaughan. 2004. Conceptual model of a strategy for Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) protection in the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC), Costa Rica. La Asociación para la Protección de Psitácidos del Área, Garabito, Costa Rica.

Association for Parrot Conservation (1994a): Policy statement on confiscated parrots. Association for Parrot Conservation, Arlington, Virginia.

Association for Parrot Conservation (1994b): Policy statement on reintroduction for parrot conservation. Association for Parrot Conservation, Arlington, Virginia.
Ballou, J. D. (1997): Genetic and demographic aspects of animal reintroductions. Suppl Ric Biol Selvaggina XXVII:75-96.

Ballou J. D. & T. J. Foose (1994): Demographic and genetic management of captive populations. Kleiman DG, Allen M, Thompson K, Lumpkin S, H. Harris, editors. Wild Mammals in Captivity. Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press.

Bampi, M. I. & M. Da-Ré (1994): Recovery program for the Spix’s Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii): Conservation in the wild and reintroduction program. In: Proceedings of the III International Parrot Convention 1994, Loro Parque, Tenerife. Pp. 188-94.

Ballou, J. D. & R. C. Lacy (1995): Identifying genetically important individuals for management of genetic diversity in captive populations. Ballou JD, M. Gilpin, T. Foose, editors. Population Management for Survival and Recovery. New York, NY, Columbia Univ. Press, pp. 76-111.
Beissinger, S. R., and E. H. Butcher. 1992a. Can parrots be conserved through sustainable harvesting? A new model for sustainable harvesting regimes when biological data is incomplete. BioScience 42:164-173.

Beissinger, S. R., and E. H. Butcher. 1992b. Sustainable harvesting of parrots. Pages 73-115 in S. R. Beissinger and N. F. R. Snyder, editors. New World Parrots in Crisis. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC.

Beissinger, S. R., and N. F. R. Snyder. 1992. New World Parrots In Crisis. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Bennett, P. M., and I. P. F. Owens. 1997. Variation in extinction risk among birds: chance or evolutionary predisposition? Proceedings Royal Society of London B. 264:401-408.

Bertagnolio, P. (1981) The Red-tailed Amazon and other uncommon South American parrots. Avicult. Mag. 87: 6-18.

Bianchi, C. A. 1998. Biologia reproductiva de arara-canindé (Ara ararauna, Psittacidae) no Parque Nacional das Emas, Goiás. M. S. thesis. Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

Bjork, R. 2000. Reserve network design and management in moist lowland tropical forests: Habitat, site, and spatial requirements of the Mealy Parrot as a guide. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University and the Wildlife Conservation Society., Corvalis, Oregon.

Bjork, R. 2004. Delineating patterns and process in tropical lowlands: Mealy Parrot migration dynamics as a guide for regional conservation planning. Ph.D. Oregon State University.

Bjork, R., and G. V. N. Powell. 1995. Buffon's Macaw: some observations on the Costa Rican population, its lowland forest habitat and conservation. Pages 387-392 in J. Abramson, B. L. Spear, and J. B. Thomsen, editors. The Large Macaws: Their Care, Breeding and Conservation. Raintree Publications, Ft. Bragg, CA.

Blendinger, P. G. 1999. Facilitation of Sap-feeding birds by the White-fronted Woodpecker in the Monte Desert, Argentina. The Condor 101:402-407.

Bonadie, W. A., and P. R. Bacon. 2000. Year-round utilization of fragmented palm swamp forest by Red-bellied Macaws (Ara manilata) and Orange-winged Parrots (Amazona amazonica) in the Nariva Swamp (Trinidad). Biological Conservation 95:1-5.

Brack, C. (1987a) Some personal notes on Spix or Little Blue Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii, Wagler 1832) in captivity. Ratel 14(2): 50-51Brightsmith, D. J. 1999a. An evaluation of the Guayaquil Macaw project, Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco, Guayaquil, Ecuador. Duke Univerisity, Durham NC.

Brack, C. (1987b) Spix Macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii) – footnote to article by Christopher Brack (Vol. 14, no.2). Ratel 14(5): 143-144

Brightsmith, D. J. 1999b. The roles of predation and competition in nest niche differentiation: evidence from termitarium nesting parrots and trogons. Ph.D. dissertation. Duke University, Durham, NC.

Brightsmith, D. J. 1999c. White-winged Parakeet and Yellow-chevroned Parakeet. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Brightsmith, D. J. 2000a. Macaw reproduction and management in Tambopata, Peru I: Blue-and-gold Macaws. Unpublished Report Duke University, Durham NC.

Brightsmith, D. J. 2000b. Macaw Reproduction and Management in Tambopata, Peru II: Nest box design and use. Unpublished Report Duke University, Durham NC.

Brightsmith, D. J. 2000c. Macaw reproduction and management in Tambopata, Peru III: Survival and reproduction of hand raised macaws. Unpublished report Duke University, Durham NC.

Brightsmith, D. J. 2000d. Scarlet Macaw nest box design. Unpublished Report Duke University, Durham NC.

Brightsmith, D. J. 2000e. Tambopata Macaw Project: Annual Report 1999-2000. Report Submitted to Rainforest Expeditions Duke University and Rainforest Expeditions, Durham NC.

Brightsmith, D. J. 2000f. Use of arboreal termitaria by nesting birds in the Peruvian Amazon. Condor 102:529-538.

Brightsmith, D. J. 2000g. Wet season clay lick use by macaws and parrots, 1999-2000 preliminary report. Unpublished Report Duke University, Durham NC.

Brightsmith, D. J. 2001. The Tambopata Macaw Project: developing techniques to increase reproductive success of large macaws. AFA Watchbird 28:24 - 32.

Brightsmith, D. J. 2004a. Effects of weather on avian geophagy in Tambopata, Peru. Wilson Bulletin 116:134 -145.

Brightsmith, D. J. 2004b. Nest sites of termitarium nesting birds in SE Peru. Neotropical Ornithology 15:319-330.

Brightsmith, D. J. 2005a. Competition, predation and nest niche shifts among tropical cavity nesters: ecological evidence. Journal of Avian Biology 36:74-83.

Brightsmith, D. J. 2005b. Competition, predation and nest niche shifts among tropical cavity nesters: phylogeny and natural history evolution of parrots (Psittaciformes) and trogons (Trogoniformes). Journal of Avian Biology 36:64-73.

Brightsmith, D. J. In press. Parrot nesting in SE Peru: seasonal patterns and keystone trees. Wilson Bulletin.

Brightsmith, D. J., and R. Aramburú. 2004. Avian geophagy and soil characteristics in southeastern Peru. Biotropica 36:534-543.

Brightsmith, D. J., and A. Bravo. In press. Ecology and management of nesting Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna) in Mauritia palm swamps. Biodiversity and Conservation.

Brightsmith, D. J., and A. Figari. In prep. Seasonal patterns of avian geophagy in Tambopata, Peru.

Brightsmith, D. J., A. Figari, and D. Matsufuji. 2004. Ecología Reproductiva y uso de Colpas de Guacamayos en Madre de Dios: Informe Anual a INRENA. Duke University, Durham, NC.

Brightsmith, D. J., J. Hilburn, A. Del Campo, J. Boyd, M. Frisius, R. Frisius, D. Janik, and F. Guillén. 2005. The use of hand-raised Psittacines for reintroduction: a case study of scarlet macaws (Ara macao) in Peru and Costa Rica. Biological Conservation 121:465 - 472.

Brightsmith, D. J., and E. Villalobos. In prep. Parrot flocking and predation: behavioral strategies at an avian geophagy site in Peru. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.

Brightsmith, D. J., and E. Villalobos. In prep. Avian geophagy in Tambopata, Peru.

Brock, M.K. & B.N. White (1992): Application of DNA fingerprinting to the recovery program of the endangered Puerto Rican parrot. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. USA 89: 11121-11125.

Brouwer, K., M. L. Jones, C. E. King, and H. Schifter. 2000. Longevity records for Psittaciformes in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook 37:299-316.

Bucher, E. H. 2000. Comments on the management plan for the sustainable use of Amazona aestiva (Blue-fronted Amazon) in Argentina. Centro de Zoologia Aplicada, Cordoba, Argentina.

Burger, J., and M. Gochfeld. 2003. Parrot behavior at a Rio Manu (Peru) clay lick: temporal patterns, associations, and antipredator responses. Acta Ethologica 6:23 - 34.

Bürkle M. & H. Gerlach (2002). Medical monitoring of the biggest parrot collection in the world. Proceedings of the 5th International Parrot Convention, Loro Parque Fundación, Spain.

Caparroz, R. 2003. Filogeografia, estrutura e variabilidade genética da Araracanindé (Ara ararauna, Psittaciformes: Aves) no Brasil baseadas na análise de DNA mitocondrial e de DNA nuclear. PhD. Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Caparroz, R., C. Y. Miyaki, and A. J. Baker. 2003. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the Blue-and-gold Macaw, Ara ararauna (Psittaciformes: Aves). Molecular Ecology Notes 3:441 - 443.

Caparroz, R., C. Y. Miyaki, M. I. Bampi, and A. Wajntal. 2001. Analysis of the genetic variability in a sample of the remaining group of Spix's Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii, Psittafores: Aves) by DNA fingerprinting. Biological Conservation 99:307-311.

Casagrande, D. G., and S. R. Beissinger. 1997. Evaluation of four methods for estimating parrot population size. Condor 99:445-457.

Chassot, O., and G. M. Arias. 2000. Observaciones de lapas durante la temporada de anidamiento en la Zona Norte de Costa Rica Disminución de la población (1998-2000). Unpublished report Proyecto Lapa Verde, Heredia, Costa Rica.

Chassot, O., and G. Monge. 2002. Great Green Macaw: flagship species of Costa Rica. PsittaScene 53:6-7.

Chassot, O., G. Monge, U. Alemán, G. Powell, and S. Palminteri. 2002. Lapa Verde estable pero inviable. Ciencias Ambientales 24.

Chassot, O., G. Monge, G. Powell, S. Palminteri, U. Alemán, P. Wright, and K. Adamek. 2001. Lapa verde, víctima del manejo forestal insostenible. Ciencias Ambientales 21:60 - 69.

Christian, C. S. 1993. The challenge of parrot conservation in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Journal of Biogeography 20:463-469.

Christian, C. S., T. D. Potts, G. W. Burnett, and T. E. J. Lacher. 1996. Parrot conservation and ecotourism in the Windward Islands. Journal of Biogeography 23:387-393.

Christidis, L., R. Schodde, D. D. Shaw, and S. F. Maynes. 1991. Relationship among the Australo-Papuan parrots, lorikeets, and cockatoos (Aves: Psitaciformes): protein evidence. Condor 93:302 - 317.

Clubb, K. J., and S. L. Clubb. 1992a. Reintroduction of military macaws in Guatemala. Pages Chapter 23 in R. M. Shubot, K. J. Clubb, and S. L. Clubb, editors. Psittacine Aviculture: perspectives, techniques and research. Avicultural Breeding and Research Center, Loxahatchee Florida.

Clubb, K. J., and S. L. Clubb. 1992b. Status of macaws in aviculture. Pages Chapter 24 in R. M. Shubot, K. J. Clubb, and S. L. Clubb, editors. Psittacine Aviculture: perspectives, techniques and research. Avicultural Breeding and Research Center, Loxahatchee Florida.

Clubb, S. L. 1992. The role of private aviculture in the conservation of Neotropical psittacines. Pages 117-132 in N. F. R. Snyder and S. R. Beissinger, editors. New World Parrots in Crisis. Smithsonian, Washington DC.

Clubb, S.L. (1992): Thick-billed Parrots: Homecoming for Our Native Parrot, in Schubot, R.M, K.J. Clubb & S.L. Clubb: Psittacine Aviculture Perspectives, Techniques and Research. Loxahatchee, Florida: Avicultural Breeding and Research Center. (22.1-22.4).

Clubb, S. L., and K. J. Clubb. 1992c. Reproductive life span of macaws. Pages Chapter 25 in R. M. Shubot, K. J. Clubb, and S. L. Clubb, editors. Psittacine Aviculture: perspectives, techniques and research. Avicultural Breeding and Research Center, Loxahatchee Florida.

Collar, N. J. 1997. Family Psittacidae. Pages 280-479 in J. d. Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, editors. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Collar, N.J., L.P. Gonzaga, N. Krabbe, A. Madroño Nieto, L.G. Naranjo, T.A. Parker III and D.C.Wege (1992): Spix’s Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii. In: Threatened Birds of the Americas. The ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, pp. 266-281. See App. 3.

Collazo, J. A., T. White, H., F. J. Vilella, and S. Guerrero. 2003. Survival of captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic. Condor 105:198-207.

Colton, H. S. 1941. Prehistoric trade in the Southwest. Scientific Monthly 52:308-319.

Consorte-McCrea, A.G. (1995): Training captive kept mammals for reintroduction: a comparative study of techniques. MSc. thesis, DICE, University of Kent.

Cotton, P. A. 2001. The behavior and interactions of birds visiting Erythrina fusca flowers in the Columbian Amazon. Biotropica 33:662-669.

Cougill, S., and S. J. Marsden. 2004. Variability in roost size in an Amazona parrot: implications for roost monitoring. Journal of Field Ornithology 75:67-73.

Crosta, L. and S. Clubb (2002): State of the Art in the Evaluation of Poor Breeding Success in Psittacine Birds. Proceedings of the 5th International Parrot Convention, Loro Parque Fundación, Spain.

da Rocha, C. F. D. 1988. Migracão circadiana em cinco espécies de psitacídeos em Parintins - AM. Acta Amazonica 18:371 - 374.

de Grahl, W. (1986) Vom Spix' Blauara (Cyanopsitta spixii [Wagler 1832]). Gefied. Welt 110: 103.

DeDios, A. & P. Hill (1990): Breeding the Spix’s Macaw. Bird World 13(4) (November/December): 16, 18.

Derrickson, S. R., and N. F. R. Snyder. 1992. Potentials and limits of captive breeding in parrot conservation. Pages 133-164 in N. F. R. Snyder and S. R. Beissinger, editors. New World Parrots in Crisis. Smithsonian, Washington DC.

Diamond, J., K. D. Bishop, and J. D. Gilardi. 1999. Geophagy in New Guinea birds. Ibis 141:181-193.

Eberhard, J. R. 1998. Evolution of nest-building behavior in Agapornis parrots. Auk 115:455-464.

Earnhardt J. M. 1999. Reintroduction programmes: genetic trade-offs for populations. Animal Conservation 2(4): 279-86Eisermann, K. 2003. Status and conservation of Yellow-headed Parrot Amazona oratrix "guatemalensis" on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala. Bird Conservation International 13:361 - 366.

Engeman, R.M., S.A. Shwiff, F. Cano & B. Constantin (2003): An economic assessment of the potential for predator management to benefit Puerto Rican parrots. Ecological Economics 46 (2): 283-292.

Enkerlin-Hoeflich, E. C., and K. M. Hogan. 1997. Red-crowned Parrot. in A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The Birds of North America. The Academy of Natural Sciences and the American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.

Enkerlin-Hoeflich, E. C., J. M. Packard, and J. J. Gonzalez-Elizondo. 1999. Safe field techniques for nest inspections and nestling crop sampling of parrots. Journal of Field Ornithology 70:8-17.

Fernandes Seixas, G. H., and G. de Miranda Mourão. 2002. Nesting success and hatching survival of the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Journal of Field Ornithology 73:399 - 409.

Forshaw, J. M. 1989. Parrots of the world, Third edition. Landsdowne Editions, Melbourne, Australia.

Galetti, M. 1993. Diet of the Scaly-headed Parrot (Pionus maximiliani) in a semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil. Biotropica 25:419-425.

Galetti, M., and M. Rodrigues. 1992. Comparative seed predation on pods by parrots in Brazil. Biotropica 24:222-224.

Garciá, C. Z. 1991. The status of macaws in the state of Zulia, Venezuela. Pages 40-41 in J. Clinton-Eitniear, editor. The First Mesoamerican Workshop on the Conservation and Management of Macaws. Center for the Study of Tropical Birds, Inc., Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

Gilardi, J. D. 1996. Ecology of Parrots in the Peruvian Amazon: Habitat Use, Nutrition, and Geophagy. Ph.D. dissertation. UC Davis, Davis, CA.

Gilardi, J. D., S. S. Duffey, C. A. Munn, and L. A. Tell. 1999. Biochemical functions of geophagy in parrots: detoxification of dietary toxins and cytoprotective effects. Journal of Chemical Ecology 25:897-922.

Gilardi, J. D., and C. A. Munn. 1998. Patterns of activity, flocking and habitat use in parrots of the Peruvian Amazon. Condor 100:641-653.

González, J. A. 1998. Análisis de las poblaciones de aves silvestres de importancia socieconómica en el sector meridional de la Reserva Nacional Pacaya-Samiria (Loreto, Perú) y bases para su manejo. M. Sc. Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru.

González, J. A. 1999. Propuesta de manejo de loros y guacamayos en la Comunidad de Victoria. Junglevagt for Amamazonas, WWF/DK-AIF, Programa Integral de Desarrollo y Conservación Pacaya Samiria., Lima.

González, J. A. 2003. Harvesting, local trade, and conservation of parrots in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Biological Conservation 114:437-446.

Greenwood, A.G. (1996): The Echo Responds - A Partnership between Conservation Biology, Aviculture and Veterinary Science. Proceedings of the International Avicultural Society meeting, Florida.

Greiser, S. T. 1995. The sacred bird. Pages 497-510 in J. Abramson, B. L. Spear, and J. B. Thomsen, editors. The Large Macaws: Their Care, Breeding and Conservation. Raintree Publications, Ft. Bragg, CA.

Grenier, J. L., and S. R. Beissinger. 1999. Variation in the onset of incubation in a Neotropical parrot. Condor 101:752-761.

Griffin, A.S. & C.S. Evans (2003): The role of differential reinforcement in predator avoidance learning. Behavioural Processes 61: 87–94.

Griffin, A.S., D.T. Blumenstein & C.S. Evans (2000): Training captive bred or translocated animals to avoid predators. Conservation Biology, 14 (5): 1317-26.

Griffin, A.S., C.S. Evans & D.T. Blumenstein (2001): Learning specificity in acquired predator recognition. Animal Behaviour 62: 577-89.

Griffiths, R. & B. Tiwary (1995): Sex of the last wild Spix’s Macaw. Nature 375: 454.

Guedes, N. M. R. 2004. Management and conservation of the large macaws in the wild. Neotropical Ornithology 15:279 - 283.

Guedes, N. M. R., and L. H. Harper. 1995. Hyacinth Macaws in the Pantanal. Pages 395-421 in J. Abramson, B. L. Spear, and J. B. Thomsen, editors. The Large Macaws: Their Care, Breeding and Conservation. Raintree Publications, Ft. Bragg, CA.

Guedes, N. M. R., and M. C. B. Toledo. 2003. Development of Hyacinth Macaw Andorhynchus hyacinthinus nestlings in ten reproductive periods in the pantanal (1991 - 2000). Unpublished manuscript. Unpublished report.

Hammer, M. L. A. 2001. Parrot colpa and geophagy behaviour, and vertebrate species lists from the El Gato region of the Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone, Amazonia, Peru. Unpublished report Biosphere Expeditions, Sprat's Water, UK.

Hammer, M. L. A., and E. E. K. Tatum-Hume. 2002. Surveying monkeys, macaws and other wildlife of the Peru Amazon. Unpublished report Biosphere Expeditions, Sprat's Water, UK.

Hämmerli, J. (1991) Haltung und Zucht des Spix-Aras (Cyanopsitta spixii). Gefied. Freund 38: 130-145.

Hardie, L. C. (1987) Brazilian macaws get second chance. TRAFFIC (U.S.A.) 7(4): 7.

Hardy, J. W. 1963. Epigamic and reproductive behavior of the orange-fronted parakeet. Condor 65:169 - 199.

van Heezik, Y., P.J. Seddon & R. F. Maloney (1999): Helping reintroduced houbara bustards avoid predation: effective anti-predator training and the predictive value of prerelease behaviour. Animal Conservation, 2, 155-163.Heinsohn, R., and S. Legge. 2003. Breeding biology of the extremely dichromatic, cooperative parrot, Eclectus roratus. Journal of the Zoological Society of London 259:187 - 208.

Heinsohn, R., M. T. Murphy, and S. Legge. 2003. Overlap and competition for nest holes among eclectus parrots, palm cockatoos and sulpher-crested cockatoos. Australian Journal of Zoology 51:81 - 94.

Hellmayr, C. E. (1906c) Revision der Spix'schen Typen brasilianischer Vögel. Abhandl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wissensch., II Kl. 22(3): 561-726.

Hepworth, A. 2002. The ecological importance of Dipteryx micrantha to nesting macaws in Lower Tambopata, Madre de Dios, Peru: A comparison of natural cavities in five species of emergent trees.

Herrera, I. K., S. R. Kaleta, E. F. Müller, H. Dolz-Wiedner, and G. Neumann. 2001. Serological status for Chlamydophila psittaci, Newcastle disease virus, avian polyoma virus, and Pacheco disease virus in scarlet macaws (Ara macao) kept in captivity in Costa Rica. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B. 48:721-726.

Hesse, A. 1998. Conservation of the Blue-throated Macaw. Pages 104-109 in W. Kiessling, editor. IV International Parrot Convention. Loro Parque, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

Hesse, A. J., and G. Duffield. 2000. The status and conservation of the Blue-throated Macaw Ara glaucogularis. Bird Conservation International 10:255-275.

Higgins, K., D. Janik, and J. Hilburn. 1999. Scarlet Macaw Reintroduction Project. Unpublished report Zoo Ave, San Jose, Costa Rica.

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Hilburn, J., and K. Higgins. 2000b. Nature Restoration Foundation's Scarlet Macaw Conservation Project Survivorship Update. Unpublished Report Nature Restoration Foundation, San Jose, Costa Rica.

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Iñigo-Elias, E. E. 1996. Ecology and breeding biology of the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) in the Usumacinta drainage basin of Mexico and Guatemala. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

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Johnson, M. A., W. M. Tomas, and N. M. R. Guedes. 1997. Density of young manduvi (Sterculia apetala), the Hyacinthine Macaw's nesting tree, under three different management conditions in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. Ararajuba.

Johnston, G. B. 2000. The fate of confiscated smuggled birds in the United States. M.S. University of California, Davis, CA.

Jones, C. G., K. Swinnerton, M. Thorsen, and A. Greenwood. 1998. The biology and conservation of the echo parakeet Psittacula eques of Mauritius. Pages 110-121 in W. Kiessling, editor. IV International Parrot Convention. Loro Parque, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

Joseph, L. 2003. Geographical variation, taxonomy and distribution of some Amazonian Pyrrhura parakeets. Ornithologia Neotropical 13:337 - 363.

Juniper, A. T., and C. Yamashita. 1991. The habitat and status of Spix's Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii. Bird Conservation International 1:1-9.

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Juniper, T. (1991) Last of a kind - a lone Spix’s Macaw survives in the wild. Birds International 3: 10-17.

Juniper, T. 2003. Spix's Macaw: the race to save the world's rarest bird. Fourth Estate, London.

Juniper, T., and M. Parr. 1998. Parrots: a guide to parrots of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Juniper T. & C. Yamashita (1990): The conservation of Spix’s Macaw. Oryx 24, 4: 224-228.Karesh, W. B., A. d. Campo, W. E. Braselton, H. Puche, and R. A. Cook. 1997. Health evaluation of free-ranging and hand-reared macaws (Ara spp.) in Peru. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 28:368-377.

Koenig, S. E. 2001. The breeding biology of Black-billed Parrot Amazona agilis and Yellow-billed Parrot Amazona collaria in Cockpit Country, Jamaica. Bird Conservation International 11:205 - 225.

Krebs, E. A., R. B. Cunningham, and C. F. Donnelly. 1999. Complex patterns of food allocation in asynchronously hatching broods of Crimson Rosellas. Animal Behavior 57:753-763.

Langstroth, R. 1999. Forest island in an Amazonian savanna of northeastern Bolivia. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Legge, S., R. Heinsohn, C. Blackman, and S. Murphy. 2003. Predation by Rufous Owls on Eclectus Parrots and other animals at Iron Range National Park, Cape York. Corella 27:45 - 46.

Lindsey, G. D., W. J. Arendt, and J. Kalina. 1994. Survival and causes of mortality in juvenile Puerto Rican Parrots. Journal of Field Ornithology 65:76-82.

LoroParque. 2002. Proceedings of the 5th International Parrot Convention, Loro Parque, Tenerife, Spain.

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